ASME B 56.1:2005

Safety Standard
for Low Lift and
High Lift Trucks
Powered and Nonpowered Industrial Trucks
AN AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
INDUSTRIAL TRUCK STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION
ANSI/ITSDF B56.1-2005
(Reaffirmation of ASME B56.1-2004)
Date of Issuance: November 22, 2004
The next edition of this Standard is scheduled for publication in 2007. There will be no addenda
issued to this edition.
ITSDF issues written replies to inquiries concerning interpretations of technical aspects of this
Standard. Interpretations are published on the ITSDF Web site at http://www.itsdf.org as they are issued,
and will also be published within the next edition of the Standard.
ITSDF is the registered trademark of Industrial Truck Standards Development Foundation.
This code or standard was developed under procedures accredited as meeting the criteria for American National
Standards. The Standards Committee that approved the code or standard was balanced to assure that individuals from
competent and concerned interests have had an opportunity to participate. The proposed code or standard was made
available for public reviewand comment that provides an opportunity for additional public input fromindustry, academia,
regulatory agencies, and the public-at-large.
ITSDF does not “approve,” “rate,” or “endorse” any item, construction, proprietary device, or activity.
ITSDF does not take any position with respect to the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any
items mentioned in this document, and does not undertake to insure anyone utilizing a standard against liability for
infringement of any applicable letters patent, nor assume any such liability. Users of a code or standard are expressly
advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, is
entirely their own responsibility.
Participation by federal agency representative(s) or person(s) affiliated with industry is not to be interpreted as
government or industry endorsement of this code or standard.
ITSDF accepts responsibility for only those interpretations of this document issued in accordance with the established
ITSDF procedures and policies, which precludes the issuance of interpretations by individuals.
Industrial Truck Standards Development Foundation
1750 K Street NW, Suite 460, Washington DC 20009
202-478-7599 http:\\www.itsdf.org
Copyright © 2005 by
INDUSTRIAL TRUCK STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION
All rights reserved
Printed in U.S.A.
CONTENTS
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
Committee Roster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi
B56 Series Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Summary of Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Part I Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
3 Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Part II For the User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
4 General Safety Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
5 Operating Safety Rules and Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6 Maintenance and Rebuild Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Part III For the Manufacturer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
7 Design and Construction Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Part IV Glossary of Commonly Used Words and Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Part V References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Figures
1 Operator-Up Counterbalanced Front/Side Loader Lift Truck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2 Service Brake Performance Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3 Typical Fork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
4 Overhead Guard Cube Drop Test Deformation Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
5 Overhead Guard Impact Test Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
6 Overhead Guard Impact Deformation Limit (Sit-Down) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7 Overhead Guard Impact Deformation Limit (Stand-Up) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
8 Fork Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
9 Motorized Hand/Rider Truck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
10 Counterbalanced Front/Side Loader Lift Truck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
11 Types of Trucks: High Lift Counterbalanced Truck, Cantilever Truck, Rider
Truck, Forklift Truck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
12 High Lift Rider Platform Truck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
13 Low Lift Truck, Low Lift Platform Truck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
14 High Lift Order Picker Rider Truck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
15 Low Lift Order Picker Truck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
16 Motorized Hand Truck, Pallet Truck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
17 High Lift Motorized Hand Trucks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
18 Narrow Aisle Rider Truck, Straddle Truck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
19 Operator-Up Counterbalanced Front/Side Loader Truck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
20 Reach Rider Truck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
21 Single Side Loader Rider Truck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Tables
1(a) Counterbalanced Lift Trucks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1(b) Counterbalanced Truck Handling Freight Containers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2 Narrow Aisle High Lift Trucks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3 Narrow Aisle High Lift Trucks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4 Narrow Aisle High Lift Trucks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5 High Lift Order Picker Trucks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
iii
6 High Lift Order Picker Trucks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
7 Counterbalanced Front/Side Loader Lift Trucks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
8 Counterbalanced Front/Side Loader Lift Trucks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
9 Counterbalanced Front/Side Loader Lift Trucks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
10 Operator-Up Counterbalanced Front/Side Loader Lift Trucks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
11 Operator-Up Counterbalanced Front/Side Loader Lift Trucks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
12 Operator-Up Counterbalanced Front/Side Loader Lift Trucks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
13 Single Side Loader Lift Trucks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
14 Lever- or Handle-Type Controls: Sequence of Location and Direction
of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
15 Overhead Guard Impact Test Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
iv
FOREWORD
In June 1946, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers adopted a resolution to develop
a Safety Code for Powered industrial Trucks. On August 7, 1947, the American Standards Association
(now called the American National Standards Institute, Inc.) approved ASME sponsorship of
such a standard. An organizational meeting was held on May 20, 1948.
Comments from a first draft, dated 1949, were incorporated in a final draft dated November,
1949, which was submitted to Sectional Committee Members for letter ballot vote and was
unanimously affirmed. In June, 1950, ASA (now called ANSI) approved the code as submitted, and
issued it as ASA B56.1-1950, Safety Code for Industrial Powered Trucks.
In accordance with procedures to review the Standard every 5 years, revisions were developed
under ASA and its successor organizations as follows:
Revision Started Printed Standards Body
B56.1-1955 May 1948 March 1955 American Standards Association
B56.1-1959 March 1955 August 1959 American Standards Association
B56.1-1969 August 1959 September 1969 USA Standards Institute
B56.1-1975 October 1969 September 1975 American National Standards Institute
B56.1-1983 October 1975 April 1984 American National Standards Institute
B56.1-1988 April 1987 June 1988 American National Standards Institute
B56.1-1993 February 1993 January 1994 American National Standards Institute
B56.1-2000 March 1995 May 2000 American National Standards Institute
B56.1-2004 December 2003 November 2004 American National Standards Institute
ASME issues written replies to inquires concerning interpretations of technical aspects of this
Standard. Beginning with the 1998 edition, interpretations were included with the addenda service.
Interpretations are not part of the addenda to the Standard.
The 1993 edition of B56.1 was approved by the American National Standards Institute on
November 12, 1993.
The 2000 edition of B56.1 was approved by the American National Standards Institute on
January 19, 2000.
The 2004 edition of B56.1 was approved by the American National Standards Institute on April
20, 2004.
On August 1, 2005, management of the B56 Standards Committee and its subcommittees was
transferred from ASME to the Industrial Truck Standards Development Foundation. This Standard
was reaffirmed by the B56 Standards Committee after references to ASME were changed to
ITSDF.
This Standard shall become effective 1 year after its respective Date of Issuance. Part III
applies only to trucks manufactured after the effective date.
Safety codes and standards are intended to enhance public health and safety. Revisions result
from committee consideration of factors such as technological advances, new data, and changing
environmental and industry needs. Revisions do not imply that previous editions were inadequate.
ITSDF B56 STANDARDS COMMITTEE
Powered and Nonpowered Industrial Trucks
(The following is the roster of the Committee at the time of reaffirmation of this Standard.)
OFFICERS
R. N. Rogers, Chair
S. J. Simpson, Vice Chair
C.F Merther, Secretary
COMMITTEE PERSONNEL
L. J. Churches, Churches & Associates, Inc. J. A. Lyle, NACCO Material Handling
J. N. Eavenson, Commercial Turf Products, Ltd.
D. M. Graham, Ford Motor Co. W. J. Montwieler, The Industrial Truck Association
C. F. Merther, Alternate, The Industrial Truck Association
M. G. Herrstromer, AGV Products, Inc.
E. J. Ramsey, Sweepster
R. L. Riley, U.S. Army Tacom
D. E. Hupp, Aluminum Co. of America R. N. Rogers, Consultant
J. E. Johnson, Johnson Engineering Services, Inc. K. S. Sanders, East Penn Manufacturing Co., Inc.
P. J Kapust, U.S. Department of Labor — OSHA S. J. Simpson, Kalmar RT Center LLC
K. M. Stevanus, Alternate,  U.S. Department of Labor — OSHA F. E. Steinberger, General Motors Corp.
D. T. Labelle, Consultant R. E. Ward, Material Handling Industry of America
SUBCOMMITTEE B56.1 — LOW LIFT AND HIGH LIFT TRUCKS
D. M. Graham, Chair,  Ford Motor Co. D. A. Greer, Verizon Communications
D. L. Dunlap, Vice Chair, Crown Equipment Corp. D. E. Hupp, Aluminum Co. of America
S. L. McDermitt, Alternate, Crown Equipment Corp. T. M. Jeruzal, Daimler Chrysler Corp.
R. Mohamed, Secretary,  The American Society of Mechanical P. J. Kapust, U.S. Department of Labor, OSHA
Engineers J. A. Lyle, NACCO Material Handling
I. Avitan, Avitan & Associates, Inc. C. F. Merther, The Industrial Truck Association
C. A. Barnes, Consulting Engineer L. Mills, Van Dorn Demag Corp.
B. W. Bennett, General Motors of Canada, Ltd.
D. Mueller, BPR/RICO Equipment, Inc.
J. F. Bennett, Bennett Associates
D. J. Muhlenkamp, Toyota Material Handling USA, Inc.
L. J. Bovenzi, Eastman Kodak Co. D. G. Norton, The Raymond Corp.
M. Boyles, Taylor Machine Works C. C. Ragland, Multiton MIC Corp.
J. A. Braun, Toyota Material Handling USA, Inc. R. L. Riley, U.S. Army Tacom
L. J. Churches, Churches & Associates, Inc. R. N. Rogers, Consultant
J. H. Dobson, Safety and Health Associates, Ltd. J. B. Sevart, Sevart JB Consulting Engineer
B. Y. Tommina, Alternate,  Safety and Health Associates, Ltd. R. K. Smith, R. K. Smith Engineering, Inc.
F. Entwisle, Consultant K. R. Van Hook, Mitsubishi Caterpillar America, Inc.
J. L. Franks, Consultant R. D. Vincent, 3M
vi
POWERED AND NONPOWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS
B56 SERIES INTRODUCTION
GENERAL
This Standard is one of a series that has been formulated
with the Industrial Truck Standards Development
Foundation as Sponsor in accordance with the
Accredited Organization method, the procedures accredited
by the American National Standards Institute,
Inc., and the following scope:
Establishment of the safety requirements relating to the
elements of design, operation, and maintenance; standardization
relating to principal dimensions to facilitate
interchangeability, test methods, and test procedures of
powered and nonpowered industrial trucks (not including
vehicles intended primarily for earth moving or
over-the-road hauling); and maintenance of liaison with
the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
in all matters pertaining to powered and nonpowered
industrial trucks.
One purpose of the Standard is to serve as a guide
to governmental authorities having jurisdiction over
subjects within the scope of the Standard. It is expected,
however, that the Standard will find a major application
in industry, serving as a guide to manufacturers, purchasers,
and users of the equipment.
For convenience, Standards for Powered and Nonpowered
Industrial Trucks have been divided into separate
volumes:
Safety Standards
B56.1 Low Lift and High Lift Trucks
B56.5 Guided Industrial Vehicles and Automated
Functions of Manned Industrial Vehicles
B56.6 Rough Terrain Forklift Trucks
B56.8 Personnel and Burden Carriers
B56.9 Operator Controlled Industrial Tow Tractors
B56.10 Manually Propelled High Lift Industrial
Trucks
Standardization Standards
B56.11.1 Double Race or Bi-Level Swivel and Rigid
Industrial Casters
B56.11.4 Hook-Type Forks and Fork Carriers for
Powered Industrial Forklift Trucks
B56.11.5 Measurement of Sound Emitted by Low
Lift, High Lift, and Rough Terrain Powered
Industrial Trucks
B56.11.6 Evaluation of Visibility From Powered
Industrial Trucks
B56.11.7 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Fuel Cylinders
(Horizontal or Vertical) Mounting —
Liquid Withdrawal — for Powered Industrial
Trucks
Safety standards that were previously listed as B56
volumes but now have different identification due to a
change in standards development assignments are as
follows
:
NFPA 505 Fire Safety Standard for Powered Industrial
Trucks Type Designations, Areas of
Use, Maintenance and Operation (formerly
B56.2)
UL 583 Standard for Safety for Electric-Battery-
Powered Industrial Trucks (formerly
B56.3)
UL 558 Standard for Safety for Internal Combustion
Engine-Powered Industrial Trucks
(formerly B56.4)
B56 volumes that have been withdrawn:
B56.7 Industrial Crane Trucks
B56.11.3 Load Handling Symbols for Powered Industrial
Trucks
3287 Powered Industrial Trucks: Symbols for
Operator Controls and Others Displays
If adopted for governmental use, the references to
other national standards in the specific volumes may
be changed to refer to the corresponding governmental
regulations.
The use of powered and nonpowered industrial trucks
is subject to certain hazards that cannot be completely
eliminated by mechanical means, but the risks can be
minimized by the exercise of intelligence, care, and common
sense. It is therefore essential to have competent
and careful operators, physically and mentally fit, and
thoroughly trained in the safe operation of the equipment
and the handling of the loads. Serious hazards are
overloading, instability of the load, obstruction to the
vii
free passage of the load, collision with objects or pedes- (b) indicate suggested change (addition, deletion,
trians, poor maintenance, and use of equipment for a revision, etc.)
purpose for which it was not intended or designed. (c) briefly state reason and/or evidence for suggested
Suggestions for improvement of these Standards, change
especially those based on actual experience in their (d) submit suggested changes to more than one paraapplication,
shall be submitted to the Secretary of the B56 graph in the order in which they appear in the volume.
Committee, Industrial Truck Standards Development Fo- The appropriate B56 Subcommittee will consider each
undation (ITSDF), 1750 K Street NW, Suite 460, Washin- suggested revision at its first meeting after receipt of
gton DC 20006. Comments shall be written in accord- the suggested revision(s).
ance with the following format:
(a) specify paragraph designation of the pertinent
volume
viii
ITSDF B56.1-2005
SUMMARY OF CHANGES
Following reaffirmation by the ITSDF B56 Committee and after public review, ITSDF
B56.1 - 2005 was approved as a reaffirmation of ASME B56.1-2004 by the American
National Standards Institute on September 1, 2005.
SPECIAL NOTE:
The interpretations to ITSDF B56.1 are included in this edition as a separate section for the user’s
convenience. The interpretations are not part of this edition or of the Standard itself.
ix
x
ASME B56.1-2004
SAFETY STANDARD FOR LOW LIFT AND HIGH LIFT TRUCKS
Part I
Introduction
1 SCOPE
This Standard defines the safety requirements relating
to the elements of design, operation, and maintenance
of low lift and high lift powered industrial trucks controlled
by a riding or walking operator, and intended
for use on compacted, improved surfaces.
2 PURPOSE
The purpose of this Standard is to promote safety
through the design, construction, application, operation,
and maintenance of low lift and high lift powered industrial
trucks. This Standard may be used as a guide by
governmental authorities desiring to formulate safety
rules and regulations. This Standard is also intended for
voluntary use by others associated with the manufacture
or use of low lift and high lift powered industrial trucks.
3 INTERPRETATION
3.1 Mandatory and Advisory Rules
To carry out the provisions of this Standard, all items
in Parts II, III, IV, and V are mandatory except those
including the word should, which are recommendations.
3.2 Classification of Approved Trucks
The word approved means the classification or listing
of trucks as to fire, explosion, and/or electric shock
hazard by a nationally recognized testing laboratory,
i.e., a laboratory qualified and equipped to conduct
examinations and tests such as those prescribed by
Underwriters Laboratories, Incorporated.
3.3 Requests for Interpretation
The B56 Committee will render an interpretation of
any requirement of this Standard. Interpretations will
1
be rendered only in response to a written request sent to
the Secretary of the B56 Committee, ITSDF, 1750 K Street
NW, Suite 460, Wa s hington DC 20006. The request
for interpretation shall be in the following format.
Subject: Cite the applicable paragraph number(s)
and provide a concise description.
Edition: Cite the applicable edition of the pertinent
standard for which the interpretation is
being requested.
Question: Phrase the question as a request for an interpretation
of a specific requirement suitable
for general understanding and use, not as
a request for approval of a proprietary
design or situation. The inquirer may also
include any plans or drawings that are necessary
to explain the question; however,
they should not contain proprietary names
or information.
ITSDF procedures provide for reconsideration of any
interpretation when or if additional information that
might affect an interpretation is available. Further, persons
aggrieved by an interpretation may appeal to the
cognizant ITSDF Committee or Subcommittee. ITSDF
does not “approve,” “certify,” “rate,” or “endorse” any
item, construction, proprietary device or activity.
3.4 Metric Conversions
The values stated in metric units are to be regarded
as the standard. U.S. Customary units are maintained
in the User’s section (in parentheses) as information for
those not familiar with metric units. The conversion to
U.S. Customary units is a direct (soft) conversion from
SI units.
ITSDF B56.1-2005 SAFETY STANDARD FOR LOW LIFT AND HIGH LIFT TRUCKS
Part II
For the User
4 GENERAL SAFETY PRACTICES
4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 Part II contains requirements for the users of
powered industrial trucks. Included are requirements
for operator qualifications and training, operating safety
rules, and maintenance practices.
4.1.2 Unusual operating conditions may require
additional safety precautions and special operating
instructions.
4.1.3 Supervision is an essential element in the safe
operation of powered industrial trucks.
4.2 Modifications, Nameplates, Markings, and
Capacity
4.2.1 Except as provided in para. 4.2.2, no modifications
or alterations to a powered industrial truck that
may affect the capacity, stability, or safe operation of the
truck shall be made without the prior written approval of
the original truck manufacturer or its successor thereof.
When the truck manufacturer or its successor approves
a modification or alteration, appropriate changes shall
be made to capacity plates, decals, tags, and operation
and maintenance manuals.
4.2.2 If the truck manufacturer is no longer in business
and there is no successor to the business, the user
may arrange for a modification or alteration to a powered
industrial truck, provided however, the user
(a) arranges for modification or alteration to be
designed, tested, and implemented by an engineer(s)
expert in industrial trucks and their safety
(b) maintains a permanent record of the design,
test(s), and implementation of the modification or alteration
(c) makes appropriate changes to the capacity
plate(s), decals, tags, and operation and maintenance
manuals
(d) affixes a permanent and readily visible label on
the truck stating the manner in which the truck has
been modified or altered together with the date of the
modification or alteration, and the name of the organization
that accomplished the tasks
4.2.3 If the truck is equipped with a front-end attachment(
s), including fork extensions, the user shall see
that the truck is marked to identify the attachment(s),
2
show the weight of the truck and attachment combination,
and show the capacity of the truck with attachment(
s) at maximum elevation with the load laterally
centered.1
4.2.4 The user shall see that all nameplates and caution
and instruction markings are in place and legible.
4.2.5 The user shall consider that changes in load
dimension may affect truck capacity.
4.2.6 Fork extensions shall be designed for the application.
4.2.7 When modifications involve rebuild and repair
of the basic unit, they shall be made in accordance with
the manufacturer’s established criteria and procedures
(see para. 6.2).
4.2.8 Where steering must be accomplished with
one hand using a steering handwheel, a steering knob(s)
or equivalent shall be used to promote safe and effective
operation. The steering handwheel and knob configuration
shall be of a design that will minimize the hazard
from a spinning handwheel due to a road reaction feedback,
or the steering mechanism shall be of a type that
prevents road reactions from causing the steering handwheel
to spin. The steering knob(s) shall be within the
periphery of the steering handwheel.
4.2.9 Where steering can be accomplished with
either hand, and the steering mechanism is of a type
that prevents road reactions fromcausing the handwheel
to spin (power steering or equivalent), steering knobs
may be used. When used, steering knobs shall be of a
type that can be engaged by the operator’s hand from
the top, and shall be within the periphery of the steering
handwheel.
4.2.10 Batteries used in electric trucks shall comply
with the minimum/maximum battery weight range
shown on the truck nameplate.
4.3 Stopping Distance (Descending Grades)
4.3.1 When descending a grade, stopping distance
will be greater than on-level operation. Methods shall
be provided to allow for this condition. Some methods
are: reduce speed, limit loads, allow adequate clear space
at the bottom of the grade, etc. (see para. 5.3.8).
1 Weight value to be accurate within ±5%.
SAFETY STANDARD FOR LOW LIFT AND HIGH LIFT TRUCK ITSDF B56.1-2005
4.3.2 Approximate theoretical stopping distance for
a dry clean asphalt, brushed concrete, or equivalent surface
may be determined from the following formula:
0.394v2
s p
D − G
or
3.34v1
2
s1 p
D − G
where
D p drawbar drag, as a percent, as determined from
Fig. 2 (e.g., 25 for 25%)
G p percent grade (e.g., 5 for 5%)
s p distance to stop, m
s1 p distance to stop, ft
v p velocity, km/h
v1 p velocity, mph
4.4 Stability
4.4.1 Experience has shown that high lift trucks that
comply with the stability requirements stated in para. 7.6
are stable when properly operated. However, improper
operation, faulty maintenance, or poor housekeeping
may contribute to a condition of instability and defeat
the purpose of the Standard.
4.4.2 Some of the conditions that may affect stability
are: ground and floor conditions, grade, speed, loading
(trucks equipped with attachments behave as partially
loaded trucks even when operated without a load on
the attachment), battery weight, dynamic and static
forces, and the judgment exercised by the operator.
4.4.3 On electric trucks, use only a battery or batteries
having a total service weight within the minimum/
maximum range specified on truck nameplate. See para.
7.5.8 for information on battery weight.
4.4.4 Users shall give consideration to special
operating conditions. The amount of forward and rearward
tilt to be used is governed by the application. The
use of maximum rearward tilt is allowable under certain
conditions such as traveling with the load lowered. The
stability of a truck as determined by the tests outlined
in para. 7.6 does not encompass consideration for excessive
tilt at high elevations, or the operation of trucks
with excessive off-center loads.
4.4.5 Some users may decide to establish, for their
own use, stability requirements that will vary from those
in para. 7.6. However, the requirements in para. 7.6
should serve as a guide for the user, working with the
manufacturer, in establishing his own more stringent
requirements.
3
4.5 Safety Guards
4.5.1 Overhead Guards
4.5.1.1 High lift rider trucks, including order
picker trucks, shall be fitted with an overhead guard
manufactured in accordance with para. 7.29.
4.5.1.2 An overhead guard is intended to offer
protection to the operator from falling objects but cannot
protect against every possible impact. Therefore, it
should not be considered a substitute for good judgment
and care in loading, handling, storage, etc.
4.5.1.3 Under certain unusual operating conditions,
a stronger guard, or one having openings of
smaller size, may be specified by the user, working with
the truck manufacturer.
4.5.1.4 Exceptions
(a) Where overhead obstructions limit the overall
lowered height of the truck, normal overhead gua

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